FORM+CODE in Design, Art, and Architecture

Once the exclusive domain of programmers, code is now being used by a new generation of designers, artists, and architects eager to explore how software can enable innovative ways of generating form and translating ideas. Form+Code in Design, Art, and Architecture offers an in-depth look at the use of software in a wide range of creative disciplines. This visually stimulating survey introduces readers to over 250 significant works and undertakings of the past 60 years in the fields of fine and applied art, architecture, industrial design, digital fabrication, visual cinema, photography, typography, interactive media, gaming, artificial intelligence (AI), artificial life (a-life), and graphic design, including data mapping and visualizations, and all forms of new media and expression.

Princeton Architectural Press
ISBN 9781568989372
7 x 8.5 inches (17.8 x 21.6 cm)
Paperback, 176 pages


  • The nature of form in the digital age is trapped in the invisible realm of code. Form+Code makes that world visible to the community that stands to gain the most from it: artists and designers.

    John Maeda
  • At long last, here is a publication that looks comprehensively at the contemporary digital medium with clarity, at its recent past and into the future. This book is filled with the most beautiful and intelligent images you can find in one book on digital design.

    Greg Lynn
  • Elegant as an algorithm, clear as a program, and as enthralling as a video game, Form+Code is a powerful tool, both as a tutorial and as an in-depth analysis of the aesthetics of the information age.

    Domenico Quaranta
  • Form+Code illuminates creative possibilities for code across a wide range of fields, demonstrating its potential to enliven existing forms and build new models for expression for artists, designers, and architects alike.

    Lauren Cornell
  • This incredibly rich study of the history and possibilities of creating media through code is a must-have reference collection.

    Karsten Schmidt
  • Form+Code offers a concise overview of computation in artistic and design practices, but it isn’t a textbook. It’s filled with beautiful images but it isn’t a coffee table book. It is a manual for those of us searching for alternative aesthetics and methods of creation. It provides views into other worlds which exist beyond the familiar.

    Michael Meredith

Code Examples

  • Repeat

  • Transform

  • Parameterize

  • Visualize

  • Simulate

Featuring works by:

Aaron Koblin, Aaron Siegel, Alex Dragulescu, Alexander Calder, Andy Lomas, Aranda\Lasch, ART+COM, Arup, Ben F. Laposky, Ben Fry, Ben Shneiderman, Bill Cheswick, Bridget Riley, Catalogtree, Charles A. Csuri, Cornelia Sollfrank, Cory Arcangel, David Dessens, David Em, David Small, Daniel Sauter, Douglas Hofstadter, Elena Manferdini, Emil Ruder, Emily Gobeille and Theodore Watson, Enrico Bravi, Erik Natzke, Everyware (Yunsil Heo and Hyunwoo Bang), Driessens & Verstappen, Frieder Nake, George Legrady, Gerhard Mantz, Golan Levin, Gramazio & Kohler, Architecture and Digital Fabrication ETH Zurich, Granular-Synthesis, Greg Lynn FORM, Hal Burch, Harold Cohen, Ivan Sutherland, James Paterson, Jason Salavon, Jasper Johns, Jean-Pierre Hébert, Jennifer Steinkamp, Jim Campbell, Jodi, John F. Simon, Jr., John Maeda, Jon McCormack, Jonathan Harris, Jonathan McCabe, John Rehling, Julius Popp, Jürg Lehni, Jussi Ängeslevä, Kai Wetzel, Karl Sims, PostSpectacular (Karsten Schmidt), Keith Tyson, Ken Knowlton, Kenneth A. Huff, Khoi Vinh, Kokkugia, Larry Cuba, LeCielEstBleu, Leon Harmon, LettError, Lia, Lillian Schwartz, Lisa Strausfeld, Manfred Mohr, Marcos Weskamp, Marius Watz, Mark Wilson, Martin Wattenberg, Masaki Fujihata, Michael Najjar, Mike Silver, Mikkel Crone Koser, MIT Media Lab Personal Robotics Group, Moh Architects, Morphosis, MOS Architects, NASA ESG, Nervous System, Osman Khan, Pablo Valbuena, Paolo Palma, Peter Cho, Peter Pearce, Philip Beesley, R&Sie(n)+D, Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Ralph Ammer, Richard Dawkins, Robert Hodgin, Robert Lazzarini, Ross Cooper, Roxy Paine, Ryoji Ikeda, Schoenerwissen/OfCD, SHoP, Skidmore Owings & Merrill, Sol LeWitt, Sosolimited, Stamen Design, Stefan Sagmeister, Steven Wolfram, Telcosystems, Testa & Weiser Architects, The Barbarian Group, The OpenEnded Group, Theo Jansen, THEVERYMANY, ThinkMap, Tom Betts, Tom Carden, Tom Friedman, Toyo Ito & Associates Architects, United Visual Artists, Vasa Mihich, Vera Molnar, Xitome Design, Yoko Ono, Yoshi Sodeoka, Zaha Hadid Architects, Zuzana Licko